Commentarii de religione Divi Iulii vel primordio Christianitatis
On this page you will find a list of all publications related to the topic of this weblog. Bibliography contains all books and articles written by Francesco Carotta and others directly related to the theory that the historical Jesus was Julius Caesar or that specifically mention an ancient Roman origin of elements of the early Christian religion. References contains the publications mentioned in articles on this blog. Primary Sources contains links to the related ancient writings, either as translations or in their original language. Further reading contains related and valuable publications not mentioned in any article.
If you know any additional books and articles of interest or even some obscure primary sources—because there are many, and one life is in no way long enough to know, read and be able to interpret even a small portion of them—, you can leave a note in the comment section. Thank you.
Carotta F, Eickenberg A. 2010. “Orfeo Báquico – La cruz desaparecida”. Revista de arqueología 348 (31): 40–49. Abridged version of the original Isidorianum article.
Carotta F, Eickenberg A (ed.). 2011a. War Jesus Caesar? Eine Suche nach dem römischen Ursprung des Christentums. Kiel (forthcoming).
Carotta F, Eickenberg A. 2011b. “Liberalia tu accusas! Restituting the ancient date of Caesar’s funeral”. (forthcoming). Integral versions: english, deutsch.
Carotta F, Eickenberg A, Mere D. 2010a. 17 de Marzo – Liberalia: Victoria de Munda, Fundación de la Colonia Astigi, Funeral de Julio César. Conferencia (Asociación de Amigos de Écija). Kirchzarten/Berlin/Écija. Presentación: Don Luis Rebolo González. Kirchzarten/Berlin/Écija.
Carotta F, Eickenberg A, Mere D. 2010b. Noche de San Juan. Conferencia (Asociación Puerta del Agua, Aguilar de la Frontera). Kirchzarten/Berlin/Écija.
Dormeyer D. 2000. “Plutarchs Cäsar und die erste Evangeliumsbiographie des Markus”. In: Von Haehling R (ed.). 2000. Rom und das himmlische Jerusalem. Die frühen Christen zwischen Anpassung und Ablehnung. Darmstadt. 29–52.
Charalambakis C. 1984. Ίστορία της μετακλασικης έλληνικης γλωσσας, Α. Ή έλληνιστική κοινή. Rethymno.
Coffin HC. 1936. “Vergil and Orosius”. The Classical Journal 31 (4): 235–41.
Commager S. 1962. The Odes of Horace: A Critical Study. New Haven.
Cranfield CEB. 2003. The Gospel according to Saint Mark: an introduction and commentary. Cambridge.
Crawford MH. 1974. Roman Republican Coinage. Cambridge.
Davies WD, Allison DC. 1997. Matthew 19–28. International Critical Commentary. London.
[DGP]. 342005. Der Große Ploetz. Die Daten-Enzyklopädie der Weltgeschichte. Daten Fakten, Zusammenhänge. Freiburg im Breisgau.
Drumann W, Groebe, P. (1899-19222). Geschichte Roms in seinem Übergange von der republikanischen zur monarchischen Verfassung oder Pompeius, Caesar, Cicero und ihre Zeitgenossen nach Geschlechtern und mit genealogischen Tabellen.6 volumes. Berlin/Leipzig: Gebrüder Borntraeger (reprinted 1964. Hildesheim: Georg Olms).
Dunk T von der. 2003. “Wat is domheid?”. Spiegel Historiael. Magazine voor geschiedenis en archeologie 1: 79. Amsterdam.
Elisei R (ed.). 81935. Orazio lirico maggiore scelta di 44 odi e 6 epòdi con prefazione e commento. Florence.
Gibbon E. 1846. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire1. London.
Gradel I. 2002. Emperor Worship and Roman Religion. Oxford.
Greswell E. 1852. Fasti temporis Catholici and Origines kalendariae1. Oxford.
Gundolf F. 1926. Caesar im neunzehnten Jahrhundert. Berlin.
Gundry RH. 2000. Mark: A Commentary on His Apology for the Cross, Chapters 9–16. Cambridge.
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Early Christians knew crucifixes were Imperial in origin.
Justin Martyr I Apology 55
G.W. Bowersock’s ‘Roman Arabia’ [Harvard U. Press, 1983, Cambridge, Mass.], goes into great detail about the context of the Hellenistic and Roman orbits in Egyptian and Nabataean history, in the time during and after Caesar’s ‘Alexandrian War’ as he narrated it [perhaps supplemented by Hirtius]. Bowersock also has a convincing grasp of the languages of the Semitic Orient. To connect Caesar, and his successors, to the Gospel(s) of Jesus Christ in the same place and time, it is extremeful helpful to go deep into the contemporary history, in what Fergus Millar titles ‘The Roman Near East: 31 BC-AD 337’ [Harvard U. Press, 1993]. This is also an invaluable history.
For example, we know from Bell. Alex. 65,4, that Caesar himself went through Syria in 47 BCE, on his way from Alexandria to Asia Minor. Where exactly did he go, and why? This is the area of Judea and the future Caesarea Philippi, for instance, where so much of the gospels take place. Millar writes on p. 31, “… in January 27 BC Syria became what Strabo, the best contemporary witness, called a province of Caesar as opposed to a province of the Roman people.” This is of course an element of the well-known ‘Imperial Cult’ that became Christianity (not so well-known at all in orthodoxy), but also the result of Octavian Augustus keeping Egypt out of the purview of the damn Roman Senate. Egypt, at least, was not governed by the Senate, almost alone among all the provinces of the Empire. Why? And so was Syria, according to Strabo, the supposed home territory of Jesus?
To refer to what Francesco Carotta writes in ‘Jesus was Caesar’, about his Legions settling in the ‘Holy Land’, Millar adds, ” … the complex consequences of the settlement of the veterans of two legions in this area in 15 BC, this colony, Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus, not only was the sole colonial settlement in the Near East under Augustus, but represented by far the most profound and long-lasting Roman, or Latin, intrusion into the culture of the region in the entire Roman period.” [p.36, citing Strabo, Geog. XVI, 2,20 (756)]
Octavian Augustus certainly is a key link between Julius Caesar and the development of Christianity. He made a famous visit to Syria in 20 BC, visiting key religious sites like Paneas, the Grotto of Pan, that became known as Caesarea Philippi in the New Testament.
Bowersock and Millar provide a mind-numbing extent of details from there. In just one amazing example in Millar on p. 62: “A statue-base at Si dedicated in Greek to ‘King Herodes’ (unfortunately the statue itself is missing) is followed by the dedication of an altar there in the year 33 ‘of the lord Philip (LMRN’ PLPS in Nabataean), and then by the record of the construction of a gate at Hebran in the year 7 of Claudius Caesar (LQLDYS QYSR); but then Herodian rule reappears, with datings of years 16 and 21 of ‘King Agrippa, (our?) lord’ in a Greek inscription from Sammayn.”
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