Library

On this page you will find a list of all publications related to the topic of this weblog. Bibliography contains all books and articles written by Francesco Carotta and others directly related to the theory that the historical Jesus was Julius Caesar or that specifically mention an ancient Roman origin of elements of the early Christian religion. References contains the publications mentioned in articles on this blog. Primary Sources contains links to the related ancient writings, either as translations or in their original language. Further reading contains related and valuable publications not mentioned in any article.

If you know any additional books and articles of interest or even some obscure primary sources—because there are many, and one life is in no way long enough to know, read and be able to interpret even a small portion of them—, you can leave a note in the comment section. Thank you.

Bibliography

  • Boer F de. 2008. Criticism of “Was Jezus inderdaad Caesar?”. Marc van Zoggel (online). Utrecht.
  • Carotta F. 1999. War Jesus Caesar? 2000 Jahre Anbetung einer Kopie. Munich.
  • Carotta F. 2002. Was Jezus Caesar? Over de Romeinse oorsprong van het christendom (revised). Soesterberg.
  • Carotta F. 2003. “Il Cesare incognito / Da Divo Giulio a Gesù”. In: Canfora L (ed.). 2003. Quaderni di Storia 57: 357–75. Milan: Edizioni Dedalo. Riveduto: con aspetti iconografici.
  • Carotta F. 2005. Jesus was Caesar. On the Julian Origin of Christianity. An Investigative Report (revised). Soesterberg. Extensive excerpts.
  • Carotta F. 2008. “Los evangelios como transposición diegética: una posible solución a la aporía ‘¿Existió Jesús?'”. In: Piñero A (ed.). ¿Existió Jesús realmente?. Madrid. 101–24. Other versions: english, deutsch
  • Carotta F. 2010. Astigi quod Iulienses. El misterio de Astigi y la palmera de Munda”. carotta.de. Kirchzarten/Écija.
  • Carotta F, Eickenberg A. 2009. “Orfeo Báquico – La cruz desaparecida”. Isidorianum 35: 179–217. Seville: Centro de Estudios Teológicos de Sevilla. Errata-corrige de la impresión en Isidorianum. PDF revisado y de búsqueda. Integral versions: english, deutsch.
  • Carotta F, Eickenberg A. 2010. “Orfeo Báquico – La cruz desaparecida”. Revista de arqueología 348 (31): 40–49. Abridged version of the original Isidorianum article.
  • Carotta F, Eickenberg A (ed.). 2011a. War Jesus Caesar? Eine Suche nach dem römischen Ursprung des Christentums. Kiel (forthcoming).
  • Carotta F, Eickenberg A. 2011b. “Liberalia tu accusas! Restituting the ancient date of Caesar’s funeral”. (forthcoming). Integral versions: english, deutsch.
  • Carotta F, Eickenberg A, Mere D. 2010a. 17 de Marzo – Liberalia: Victoria de Munda, Fundación de la Colonia Astigi, Funeral de Julio César. Conferencia (Asociación de Amigos de Écija). Kirchzarten/Berlin/Écija. Presentación: Don Luis Rebolo González. Kirchzarten/Berlin/Écija.
  • Carotta F, Eickenberg A, Mere D. 2010b. Noche de San Juan. Conferencia (Asociación Puerta del Agua, Aguilar de la Frontera). Kirchzarten/Berlin/Écija.
  • Couchoud PL. 1926. “L’évangile de Marc a-t-il été écrit en Latin”, Revue de l’Histoire de Religions 94. Deutsche Übersetzung. English summary.
  • Dormeyer D. 2000. “Plutarchs Cäsar und die erste Evangeliumsbiographie des Markus”. In: Von Haehling R (ed.). 2000. Rom und das himmlische Jerusalem. Die frühen Christen zwischen Anpassung und Ablehnung. Darmstadt. 29–52.
  • Eickenberg A. 2010. “The sixth hour. Crucifixion darkness and cataclysm in the Gospel of Matthew: the historical approach and solution”. DIVVS·IVLIVS. Berlin.
  • Hendriks APJ, Friesland J van, Janssen G, Pierik P. 2008. “Scientific Imagination”. De Academische Boekengids 69 (original).
  • Stauffer E. 1955. Christ and the Caesars. Historical Sketches. London. Reprinted 2008: Wipf & Stock.
  • Stauffer E. 1957. Jerusalem und Rom im Zeitalter Jesu Christi. Bern.
  • Stauffer E. 1964. Christus und die Caesaren. Historische Skizzen. Hamburg.
  • References

  • Aldrete GS. 2006. Floods of the Tiber in Ancient Rome. Baltimore.
  • Armstrong MA. 2009. “Anatomy of a debt crisis that appears, only Julius Caesar ever understood”. Armstrong Economics. Fort Dix.
  • Badian E. 1972. Publicans and sinners: private enterprise in the service of the Roman Republic. Oxford.
  • Benko S. 1980. “Virgil’s Fourth Eclogue in Christian Interpretation”. In: Temporini H, Haase W (edd.). 1980. ANRW 31.1: 646–705. Berlin.
  • Blass F, Debrunner A, Rehkopf F. 171990. Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch. Göttingen.
  • Brandt W. 1893 Die evangelische geschichte und der ursprung des Christenthums auf grund einer kritik der berichte über das leiden und die auferstehung Jesu. Leipzig.
  • Cancik H. 1975. “Christus Imperator”. In: Von Stietencron H (ed.). Der Name Gottes. Düsseldorf. 112–30.
  • Carrier RC. 1999a. “Jacoby and Müller on ‘Thallus'”. Berkeley.
  • Carrier RC. 1999b. “Thallus: an Analysis”. Berkeley.
  • Charalambakis C. 1984. Ίστορία της μετακλασικης έλληνικης γλωσσας, Α. Ή έλληνιστική κοινή. Rethymno.
  • Coffin HC. 1936. “Vergil and Orosius”. The Classical Journal 31 (4): 235–41.
  • Commager S. 1962. The Odes of Horace: A Critical Study. New Haven.
  • Cranfield CEB. 2003. The Gospel according to Saint Mark: an introduction and commentary. Cambridge.
  • Crawford MH. 1974. Roman Republican Coinage. Cambridge.
  • Davies WD, Allison DC. 1997. Matthew 19–28. International Critical Commentary. London.
  • [DGP]. 342005. Der Große Ploetz. Die Daten-Enzyklopädie der Weltgeschichte. Daten Fakten, Zusammenhänge. Freiburg im Breisgau.
  • Drumann W, Groebe, P. (1899-19222). Geschichte Roms in seinem Übergange von der republikanischen zur monarchischen Verfassung oder Pompeius, Caesar, Cicero und ihre Zeitgenossen nach Geschlechtern und mit genealogischen Tabellen. 6 volumes. Berlin/Leipzig: Gebrüder Borntraeger (reprinted 1964. Hildesheim: Georg Olms).
  • Dunk T von der. 2003. “Wat is domheid?”. Spiegel Historiael. Magazine voor geschiedenis en archeologie 1: 79. Amsterdam.
  • Elisei R (ed.). 81935. Orazio lirico maggiore scelta di 44 odi e 6 epòdi con prefazione e commento. Florence.
  • Gibbon E. 1846. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire 1. London.
  • Gradel I. 2002. Emperor Worship and Roman Religion. Oxford.
  • Greswell E. 1852. Fasti temporis Catholici and Origines kalendariae 1. Oxford.
  • Gundolf F. 1926. Caesar im neunzehnten Jahrhundert. Berlin.
  • Gundry RH. 2000. Mark: A Commentary on His Apology for the Cross, Chapters 9–16. Cambridge.
  • Hagen H. 1867. Scholia Bernensia ad Vergili Bucolica atque Georgica. Leipzig.
  • Hugo V. 1838-39. Le Rhin, published by J. Hetzel (Paris 1842).
  • Johnson ES. 2000. “Mark 15,39 and the So-Called Confession of the Roman Centurion”. Biblica 81: 406–13. Rome (Vatican).
  • Kim TH. 1998. “The Anarthrous υἱὸς θεοῦ in Mark 15:39 and the Roman Imperial Cult”. Biblica 79: 221–41. Rome (Vatican).
  • Lenski RCH. 2008. The Interpretation of St. Matthew’s Gospel 15-28. Minneapolis.
  • Lobosco R. 2010. “Was Jezus Christus eigenlijk Julius Caesar? Goddelijke Dubbelganger”. Quest Historie 1: 68–71.
  • Loisy A. 1907–08. Les Évangiles synoptiques. Vol. 1. Vol. 2. Ceffonds.
  • Lüderitz G. [unpublished]. “Taubenflug und Hahnenschrei. ‘Ornithologisches’ zum Markusevangelium”. Tübingen.
  • Martin J. 1811. The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English translation and notes. London.
  • Mattingly H. 1923-50. Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum [BMC]. London.
  • Monferrer Sala HP. 2009. “The Anaphora Pilati according to the ‘Sinaitic Arabic 445′. A new edition, with translation and a first analysis”. Journal of Eastern Christian Studies 61 (3/4): 167–198.
  • Mowery RL. 2002. “Son of God in Roman Imperial Titles and Matthew”. Biblica 83: 100–10. Rome (Vatican).
  • Nineham, DE. 1968. The Gospel of St. Mark. Pelican New Testament Commentaries. London.
  • Preller L, Köhler R (ed.). 21865. Römische Mythologie. Berlin.
  • Ramsey JT, Licht AL. 1997. The Comet of 44 B.C. and Caesar’s Funeral Games. Atlanta.
  • Ratzinger J (= Pope Benedict XVI). 2011. Jesus of Nazareth. Holy Week: From the entrance into Jerusalem to the Resurrection. San Francisco.
  • Raubitschek AE. 1954. “Epigraphical Notes on Julius Caesar”. JRS 44: 65–75.
  • [RE] Pauly A, Wissowa G, Kroll W, Wittes K, Mittelhaus K, Ziegler K, John W, Gärtner H, Murphy JP (edd.). 1890–2000. Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Neue Bearbeitung. Stuttgart.
  • Ronan C. 2005. “Caesar On and Off the Renaissance Stage”, in: Zander H (ed.). 2005. ”Julius Caesar — New Critical Essays”. New York. 71-89.
  • Rudman D. 2003. “The Crucifixion as Chaoskampf: A New Reading of the Passion Narrative in the Synoptic Gospels”. Biblica 84: 102-7. Rome (Vatican).
  • Saintyves P. 1923. Essais de folklore biblique. Magie, mythes et miracles dans l’ancien et le Nouveau Testament. Paris
  • Savage JJH. 1934. “The Manuscripts of Servius’s Commentary on Virgil”. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 45: 157–204.
  • Scaliger JJ. 1624. Opus de emendatione temporum. Genf.
  • Schaff P. 1885. The Twelve Patriarchs, Excerpts and Epistles, The Clementina, Apocrypha, Decretals, Memoirs of Edessa and Syriac Documents, Remains of the First Ages. Ante-Nicene Fathers 8. Edinburgh.
  • Schneemelcher W. 61999. Neutestamentliche Apokryphen I. Evangelien. Tübingen.
  • Schneemelcher W. 61999. Neutestamentliche Apokryphen II. Apostolisches, Apokalypsen und Verwandtes. Tübingen.
  • Schreiber J. 1967. Theologie des Vertrauens. Hamburg.
  • Seel O. 1967. “III. Zum Germanen-Exkurs. Die Elche”. In: Seel O. 1967. Caesar-Studien. Stuttgart.
  • Steele RB. 1900. “Notes on Servius”. AJP 21: 170–7. Baltimore.
  • Swan PM. 2004. The Augustan Succession: An Historical Commentary on Cassius Dio’s Roman History Books 55–56 (9 B.C.–A.D. 14). Oxford.
  • Swete HB. 31920. The Gospel according to St Mark. London.
  • Theißen G, Merz A. 2001. Der historische Jesus. Ein Lehrbuch. Göttingen.
  • Thilo GC. 1877. Servii Grammatici qui feruntur in Vergilii Bucolia et Georgica Commentarii. Leipzig.
  • Tischendorf K von. 1876. Evangelia Apocrypha adhibitis plurimis codicibus Graecis et Latinis maximam partem nunc primum consultis atque ineditorum copia insignibus. Leipzig.
  • Tinti S, Maramai A, Graziani L. 2007. The Italian Tsunami Catalogue (ITC). v2 (Windows). Bologna.
  • Usener H. 1913. Kleine Schriften 4. Leipzig.
  • Valverde LA. 2003. “La Emisión DIVOS IVLIOS (RRC 535/1–2)”. Iberia 6: 25–40.
  • Weinstock S. 1971. Divus Julius. Oxford.
  • Weston W. 1748. Dissertations on some of the most remarkable Wonders of Antiquity. Cambridge.
  • Wettstein JJ. 1751. Novum Testamentum Graecum 1. Amsterdam.
  • Williams MF. 2003. “The Sidus Iulium, the divinity of men, and the Golden Age in Virgil’s Aeneid. Leeds International Classical Studies 2 (1): 1–29.
  • Zuntz G. 1984. “Wann wurde das Evangelium Marci geschrieben?”. In: Cancik H (ed.). Markus-Philologie. Tübingen.
  • Primary sources

  • Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis (St. Augustine of Hippo), Opera Omnia.
  • Nicolaus of Damascus. ΒΙΟΣ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΟΣ (Bios Kaisaros, “The Life of Caesar”, a.k.a. ‘Life of Augustus’). English translation (1923).
  • Further reading

  • Hendriks T. 2008. Rouw en razernij om Caesar. De wraak van het volk voor een politieke moord zonder weerga. Soesterberg: Uitgeverij Aspekt.
  • External links

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